Southern African Regional Poverty Network (SARPN) SARPN thematic photo
Country analysis > Angola Last update: 2008-12-17  
leftnavspacer
Search





 Related documents

The Government of Angola

Angola Millennium Goals Report Summary 2005
Angola Objectivos Do Desenvolvimento Do Milйnio 2005

The Government of Angola and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

September 2005

[ Share with a friend  ]

English Portuguese
[Download complete version - 1.3Mb ~ 7 min (37 pages)]

Introduction

Located on the west coast of Southern Africa, Angola encompasses an area of 1,246,700 square kilometers. Sixty percent of the territory is a plateau, with an altitude that ranges from 1,000 to 2,000 metres above sea level. It is rich in water resources and has a 1,650 kilometer-long coast on the Atlantic. It has 4,837 kilometers of borders with other countries, which are the Republic of Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia and Namibia.

The climate is tropical, with two seasons: cacimbo (the dry season) from May to September and the rainy season, which is hotter, from October to April, with temperatures ranging between 27єC and 17єC.

In constitutional terms, the Angolan Republic is a democratic state, based on national unity, individual dignity, multiple political expression and organizations and the respect and guarantee of fundamental human rights.

The administrative organization of Angola is on three levels: the provinces (18 in total, which provide the base for planning and budgeting), the municipalities (of which there are more than 150) and the communes.

As well as its important natural heritage, Angola has varied and abundant resources. Its mineral resources include oil and diamonds, of which Angola is one of Africa’s top producers. Its water resources give the country potential for the production of hydroelectricity, placing Angola in a very favorable situation in its Southern African context. It also has abundant sea resources, particularly fish. Angola enjoys fertile soils that adapt to normal or irrigated agriculture. Angola has high potential to produce electricity.

Angola’s more than 30 years of internal conflict had devastating effects and has left the country in a difficult and complex social and economic situation.

The country’s economic structure has evolved into an enclave economy. Oil represents 55% of GDP and 90% of exports, 66% of the population lives below the poverty line and 26% lives in extreme poverty. The social situation, particularly in relation to health and education, is a concern. Life expectancy at birth is 42,4 years, one in every four children dies before the age of five and only 33% of the adult population is literate.

Angola’s social development indicator, based on the UNDP’s Human Development Index (HDI), published in 2005, has improved from 0,381 in 2004 to 0,445 in 2005. Despite this improvement, Angola ranks 160th out of 177 nations on the index.

Since April 2002, the date that marks the end of the war, more than four million displaced Angolans have returned to their communities, supported by Government-led initiatives to provide emergency food aid and humanitarian assistance. Much remains to be done, however, to fully implement the strategies adopted for resettlement and return, as well as to reintegrate ex-soldiers into civilian life.

The Government has embarked on several projects simultaneously in the energy and transport infrastructure sectors. The completion of the Kapanda Hydroelectric Dam and the rehabilitation of various fuel-fired power plants around the country have been assigned high priority. Vital roads, bridges, ports, and airport facilities have been upgraded, allowing access to large tracts of the territory and the provision of state administration and basic social services.

These developments, which occurred in the last three years, the period that this report covers, reflect great strides in recovery. However, they have been insufficient to have a significant impact on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

In the last three years, GDP grew more than 10%, which allowed GDP per capita to reach USD 1,247 in 2004, overtaking the USD 1,000 limit that allows qualifying for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) status. Basically this reflects the increase in oil production and the oil barrel price. Inflation has decreased from 106% in 2002 to 31% in 2004.

The current account of the balance of payments changed from a deficit of 6,4% in 2003 to a surplus of 4,5% in 2004. Fiscal balance evolved into positive figures, from -7,4% of the GDP in 2004 to a surplus 0,6% in 2004. The national currency has remained stable, in relation to the dollar, for more than two years, reflecting bold, far-reaching macroeconomic stabilization measures.

In 2003 around one million children went back to school. More than 29,000 teachers were recruited. In the same year 5,2 million people were vaccinated against polio (though this unfortunately did not stop new cases which have been reported recently, which originated from abroad).

[Documento completo - 1.6Mb ~ 9 min (39 pages)]

Introduзгo

Situada na regiгo ocidental da Бfrica Austral, Angola estende-se por uma superfнcie de 1.246.700 Km2, sendo 60% do territуrio constituнdo por planaltos de 1.000 a 2.000m com uma densa e extensa rede hidrogrбfica, entre 1.650 quilуmetros de costa atlвntica e 4.837 quilуmetros de fronteiras terrestres.

Angola tem fronteiras com a Repъblica do Congo, Repъblica Democrбtica do Congo, Repъblica da Zвmbia e Repъblica da Namнbia.

O clima й tropical, com duas estaзхes: cacimbo (estaзгo seca) de Maio a Setembro e das chuvas (mais quente) de Outubro a Abril, com temperaturas mйdias de 27єC (mбximas) e 17єc (mнnimas).

Em termos constitucionais, a Repъblica de Angola й um Estado de Direito Democrбtico, alicerзado na unidade nacional, na dignidade da pessoa humana, no pluralismo de expressгo e de organizaзгo polнtica e no respeito e garantia dos direitos fundamentais do Homem.

A organizaзгo administrativa de Angola funda-se em trкs pilares: as Provнncias, em nъmero de dezoito, que sгo a cйlula base das funзхes de planeamento e orзamentaзгo; os Municнpios (em nъmero superior a centena e meia) e as Comunas.

Angola, para alйm de um importante patrimуnio natural, possui um vasto e diversificado conjunto de recursos: recursos minerais, onde sobressaem o petrуleo e diamantes, que situam Angola no grupo dos principais produtores africanos; recursos hнdricos que posicionam o Paнs numa situaзгo privilegiada na Бfrica Austral, designadamente do ponto de vista do potencial hidroelйctrico; abundantes recursos do mar, em particular os piscнcolas; solos, de aptidгo muito variada, quer em regime de sequeiro quer de irrigaзгo; elevado e variado potencial energйtico.

Angola viu-se confrontada, durante mais de trкs dйcadas com conflitos internos que, em decorrкncia da sua acзгo destruidora, deixou o Paнs numa complexa e difнcil situaзгo econуmica e social.

O Paнs tem hoje uma estrutura econуmica de enclave, onde sу o petrуleo representa 55% do PIB e 90% das exportaзхes, 2/3 da populaзгo vive abaixo da linha de pobreza e 26% encontra-se em situaзгo de extrema pobreza. A situaзгo social, em particular no plano sanitбrio e educacional, й preocupante. A esperanзa de vida а nascenзa situa-se nos 42,4 anos, uma em cada quatro crianзas morre antes de atingir 5 anos e a taxa de alfabetizaзгo atingirб somente 1/3 da populaзгo adulta.

O indicador de desenvolvimento social de Angola, baseado no Нndice de Desenvolvimento Humano do PNUD publicado em 2005, passou de 0,381 em 2004 para 0,445 em 2005. Contudo, Angola, entre 177 paнses, estб classificada no 160є lugar, de acordo com o mesmo нndice.

Desde Abril de 2002, data do fim da guerra, cerca de 4 milhхes de angolanos deslocados regressaram аs comunidades de origem, atravйs da iniciativa de ajuda alimentar de emergкncia e assistкncia humanitбria coordenada pelo governo. Entretanto, ainda muito resta a fazer para a completa implementaзгo das estratйgias de reinstalaзгo e retorno, assim como a reintegraзгo dos ex-combatentes na vida civil.

O Governo jб se comprometeu com vбrios projectos simultвneos nos sectores de energia, infra-estruturas e transporte. Tem elevada prioridade a conclusгo da barragem hidroelйctrica de Kapanda e a reabilitaзгo de vбrias centrais elйctricas em todo o territуrio. Jб foram melhoradas as estradas e vias prioritбrias, pontes, por-tos e aeroportos, permitindo o acesso a vastas бreas do territуrio e a provisгo dos serviзos da administraзгo estatal e dos serviзos sociais bбsicos.

Porйm, a evoluзгo dos ъltimos trкs anos – correspondente ao perнodo a que se refere este Relatуrio – apуs a celebraзгo do Acordo de Paz, й jб um importante esforзo de recuperaзгo, ainda que, naturalmente, insuficiente para encurtar de forma significativa os atrasos registados na concretizaзгo dos Objectivos do Milйnio.

Nos ъltimos trкs anos o PIB evoluiu a taxas elevadas, superiores a 10%, o que permitiu que o PIB per capita tenha atingido 1.247 USD em 2004, ultrapassando o limiar (1.000 USD), dos paнses HIPC, reflectindo basicamente o aumento do volume de produзгo e o preзo de barril de petrуleo. A taxa de inflaзгo passou de 106% em 2002 para 31% em 2004.

O saldo da conta corrente da balanзa de pagamentos passou de um dйfice de 6,4% em 2003 para um saldo positivo de 4,5% em 2004. O saldo fiscal passou de -7,4% do PIB em 2004 para um saldo positivo de 0,6% em 2004. A moeda nacional permanece estбvel, em relaзгo ao dуlar, hб mais de 2 anos, reflectindo medidas de estabilizaзгo macroeconуmica abrangentes e corajosas.

Em 2003 cerca de 1 milhгo de crianзas regressou а Escola. Foram recrutados mais de 29 mil docentes. No mesmo ano foram vacinadas 5,2 milhхes contra a polio, o que nгo impediu que, depois de erradicada, novos casos se tenham verificado recentemente, por contбgio importado.



Octoplus Information Solutions Top of page | Home | Contact SARPN | Disclaimer